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Understanding Foreign Direct Investment

Understanding Foreign Direct Investment - Custom Links...

Understanding Foreign Direct Investment

Author(s): Biswajit Dhar & K.S. Chalapati Rao

Publishers: Orient Blackswan

Pages: 188

2020 Edition, Paperback

ISBN : 978-93-5287-989-2


The Orient BlackSwan ‘Policy Studies’ Series is designed to address, investigate and analyse public policy in the field of governance.



Foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered an important source of long-term finance, especially for developing nations. Analysed from the point of view of its implications on the macro-economy, FDI inflows are often seen as essential in bridging the gaps between the investment needs of the country and the domestic resources available. Understanding Foreign Direct Investment traces the evolution of the global flows of FDI from the 1950s to the present.



The authors write with two broad objectives: one, to situate FDI in the development discourse in the post-World War II period, and two, to discuss India’s trysts with FDI in the decades immediately following Independence, and on to the era of economic liberalisation. If, in the early years of the post-colonial period, India displayed caution in embracing foreign investment, the 1990s saw the country enter a new trajectory of expansion of FDI. This book focuses on the role that government policies have played in making India one of the most foreign investor-friendly destinations in the world.



Arguing that FDI inflows impact both the recipients and the providers of investments, this book also discusses how the largest creditor country in the world, the United States, influenced the evolution of the global capital markets which, in turn, impacted the developing countries.



Economists, policymakers, financial practitioners, as well as interested readers will find the book informative and useful.




Biswajit Dhar is Professor, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.


K. S. Chalapati Rao is Visiting Professor, Institute for Studies in Industrial Development, New Delhi.


When India Votes: The Dynamics of Successful Election Campaigning

When India Votes: The Dynamics of Successful Election Campaigning - Custom Links...

When India Votes:
The Dynamics of Successful Election Campaigning

Authors: Jaishri Jethwaney & Samir Gupta

Publishers: Rupa Publications India

Pages: 216

2019 Edition

ISBN : 978-93-5333-380-5


Elections have always been festive occasions in liberal democracies, and India is no exception.

Media becomes one of the most important players in elections because of its power of reach and agenda-setting. From one government-controlled television in India in 1984, to hundreds of news channels owned by various interest groups, a burgeoning print media, the coming of the social media and the tiniest and most ‘lethal’ of mass reach weapon, the mobile phone—all these have changed the way elections are now contested! The power of mass contact through rallies and public gatherings, reinforced by the event-driven media channels and the power of digital media to reach out to the young audience, has redefined electioneering in India.

When India Votes looks at the theoretical underpinnings of the relationship between democracy, mass media and election campaigning, as well as representative campaigns of the last three decades of the two major players, viz. the Congress and BJP.


Professor Jaishri Jethwaney is a PhD in Media and Elections from the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, and has worked at the premier Indian Institute of Mass Communication as professor and program director (advertising & public relations [PR]) for over a quarter century. She has authored a number of textbooks, including Corporate Communication: Principles and Practice, Social Sector Communication in India and co-authored Advertising Management, among many others.

Dr Samir Kapur, an engineer, MBA and PhD, is a versatile professional with over twenty years of experience. He is currently part of the senior management team of Adfactors PR, India’s biggest PR agency. He has strategized and executed multiple PR, industrial relations, advocacy and marketing campaigns for various political parties, prominent development sector companies, leading Indian conglomerates and multinational companies.


Contours of Value Capture: India’s Neoliberal Path of Industrial Development

Contours of Value Capture: India’s Neoliberal Path of Industrial Development - Custom Links...

Contours of Value Capture:
India’s Neoliberal Path of Industrial Development

Author: Satyaki Roy

Publishers: Cambridge University Press

Pages: xiv-202

2020 Edition

ISBN : 978-11-0876-485-8


This book provides a critical perspective on contemporary debates on industrialisation in India. It aims to study the process of industrialisation at a conceptual level and articulate and contest the evolving debates and discourses. Instituting a market led growth in India ended in a trajectory that depends heavily on profit income led and corporate driven growth. However, the performances as well as fault lines assessed in terms of industrial growth are often restricted to a discourse on shifting relative importance of agriculture, industry and services and are largely pegged on the state versus private debate. It appears that the heterogeneous space of critical perspective tends to undermine the more fundamental questions that need to be raised in relation to the larger perspective of capitalist industrialisation in India. This book addresses these questions and provides insights into the complexities of the process and growth of industrialisation as it has played out in contemporary India.


Satyaki Roy is Associate Professor at the Institute for Studies in Industrial Development (ISID), New Delhi. He did his Masters from Jadavpur University and Ph.D. from the University of Calcutta. His initial research focuses on industrial clusters in India and the nature of spatial concentration of production in the context late industrialization. He has worked and published extensively on diverse issues related to labour and employment, structural change in India, emerging trends in the manufacturing sector; growth and human development in India and political economy of informality. He worked on various projects sponsored by the Indian Council for Social Science Research; Planning Commission, GOI; Department of Science and Technology, GOI and inter-country comparative studies sponsored by IDRC, Canada and IDE, Japan. His current areas of interest include global production network, its implications on the process of industrialization in developing countries and the emerging nature of global hegemony in the context of globalization.


1 – Introduction — (1-9)

2 – Manufacturing versus Services: A Misplaced Debate —  (10-31)

3 – Global Production Network: India and Developing Countries — (32-54)

4 – Financialisation in India: Emerging Trends in the Corporate Sector —  (55-80)

5 – Hierarchies of Capital and the Architecture of Value Capture —  (81-101)

6 – Informality: Regime of Accumulation and Discourse of Power —  (102-120)

7 – Self-Employment as Disguised Dispossession —  (121-134)

8 – Land Acquisition in India: Revisiting Primitive Accumulation —  (134-154)

9 – Decoding Resistance and Class Formation in the Neoliberal Regime — (155-168)

10 – Conclusion —  (169-178)

Measuring Structural Change and Energy Use in Indian Economy: An Input-Output Approach - Custom Links...

Measuring Structural Change and Energy Use in Indian Economy: An Input-Output Approach

Anjali Tandon

Shahid Ahmed

Publisher: Bookwell


Pages: xxii+277p


Price: Rs 1,195


2019 Edition


ISBN: 978-93-865784-6-4 (Hardbound)




The Book in Brief


This book focuses on the link between changing structure of the Indian economy and energy use, which is of immense importance in view of the possible substitutions, across different fuel types within industries and processes, to cleaner fuels which are efficient or less emitting. The book analyses various aspects related to energy use such as the changing sectoral interdependence of energy sectors in the economy, sources of change in energy use over time, and the implications in terms of changing basket of goods and services traded internationally by India. Through an application based approach, using tools for economic analysis to study energy related issues, the book studies the impact of policy reforms with the help of transaction flows across sectors in an economy-wide framework. The time frame of analysis in the book covers policy changes implemented during the first and second generation reforms which had focus on output expansion and efficiency improvement in the Indian economy, respectively. The authors make a qualification to consider electricity generated from primary energy sources, particularly the hydroelectricity, as a separate source of energy use. This methodological consideration in the analysis contributes not only through a wider coverage of energy sources but also improves the precision of computations used to evaluate change in energy intensity of different sectors and the overall economy. Analysis in the book underpins the technological changes resulting from inter-fuel substitution. The analysis in the book also provides insights on energy embodied in the consumption and trade basket of India. The book notes that foreign trade of an economy can have unintended implications on energy use through transfer of energy manifested indirectly in the non-energy transactions, thus emphasising on the energy deficit of the Indian economy due to imports of energy embodied in non-energy sectors. The book serves readers across academia, research and policy makers through informed reading from the quantified facts based on economic models. It assists scholars to strengthen their understanding, learning and application of a technique. It is also helpful for the reader to apply the theory into practice.


Anjali Tandon is an Associate Professor with the Institute for Studies in Industrial Development (ISID). She has research experience of over 20 years. Her research interests include international trade, energy and FDI. She has been a contributor to the GTAP database of the Purdue University. She is the recipient of doctoral fellowship from Indian Council of Social Science Research, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Her past positions include Associate Fellow at the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER). She has authored academic papers in refereed journals and opinions in print media.

Shahid Ahmed is a Professor in the Department of Economics, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi. He has served as Head, Department of Economics, Director, Centre for Jawaharlal Nehru Studies, and Finance Officer of JMI. Earlier, he has also served as Senior Economist in UNCTAD. He has been teaching economics in the Department for more than 21 years and supervising research scholars in the field of trade and development. He has been the member of Academic Council, Executive Council and the Court of JMI. He has 5 books to his credit on issues related to International Trade and Development and has authored more than 90 research papers published in reputed national and international journals.





Chapter 1: The Challenges of Energy Economy

Chapter 2: Reflections on Global Research Measuring Structural Change from Energy Perspective

Chapter 3: Measuring Structural Change – An Input-Output Approach

Chapter 4: Overview of India’s Energy Sector

Chapter 5: Assessing Economic Landscape through the Linkage Lens

Chapter 6: Demand Shifts and Technological Change –A Structural Decomposition of Changing Energy Use

Chapter 7: Implications of Changing Pattern of Trade on Energy Use

Chapter 8: Conclusions and Policy Implications



Media/Press Release

  1. International Input-Output Newsletter, Number 43, February-March 2020
  2. PRO-Media Coordinator’s Office, Jamia Millia Islamia, November 21, 2019
  3. Social Media Page, Jamia Millia Islami, November 21, 2019
  4. Education Today, India TodayNovember 22, 2019
  5. India Education Diary November 22, 2019
  6. ARTNeT Newsletter November 2019


Industrial Policy Challenges for India - Custom Links...

Industrial Policy Challenges for India

Smitha Francis

Publisher: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group Paperback: Pages: 264 2019 Edition ISBN: 978-0-8153-6605-8 (Hardbound) ISBN: 978-0-429-24420-9 (e-Book)    

The Book in Brief

  This book looks at the debates on global value chains (GVCs) and free trade agreements (FTAs) as springboards for industrial development in developing countries, especially India. It connects the outcomes in GVC-led industrial restructuring and upgrading to industrial policy choices in trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) liberalisation, in particular those through FTAs.   With the share of manufacturing in GDP stagnant at around 15-16 per cent since the 1980s, India’s policymakers have pinned their hopes on greater integration into GVCs to revitalise the manufacturing sector. The multiple FTAs the country has signed over the last few years, specifically the ones with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), South Korea, Malaysia and Japan, have been sought to be rationalised using the same argument. The book argues that failing to factor in the industrial policy causalities involved in sustainable indigenous technology development, structural barriers to the entry into GVCs, the assessments of the available evidence on the adverse impact of trade and FDI liberalisation as well as existing FTAs on firm-level incentives for undertaking domestic production, and the industrial policy constraints imposed by FTAs can prove costly for the trajectories of developing country economies, including India.   Rich in data, this book will be useful to scholars and researchers of development economics, economics in general, development studies and public policy as well as government bodies, industry experts and policymakers. Smitha Francis is a Consultant with the Institute for Studies in Industrial Development (ISID), New Delhi, India. Her research interests cover the interfaces between different processes of trade and FDI liberalisation, industrial policy, digital transformations and manufacturing sector development. Previously, she has worked at Economic Research Foundation (ERF), New Delhi, the Secretariat for International Development Economics Associates (IDEAs); and Research and Information Systems for Developing Countries (RIS), New Delhi. She has also served as a Visiting Faculty member at the South Asian University, New Delhi, and Ambedkar University Delhi. In addition, she has been a consultant in projects sponsored by the Department of Commerce, Government of India; the Indian Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR); the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Brussels; the Centre for WTO Studies, New Delhi; the Frederick S. Pardee Centre for the Study of the Longer-Range Future, Boston University; the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN OHCHR); and the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF).  

Table of Contents

Chapter 1    Introduction   Chapter 2    Industrial Policy Evolution of the discourse   Chapter 3    Global value chains Heightening the industrial policy imperative   Chapter 4    Liberalisation sans industrial policy The experience of the Indian electronics industry   Chapter 5    Industrial policy constraints in Indian FTAs   Chapter 6    Conclusion

India’s Recent Inward Foreign Direct Investments: An Assessment - Custom Links...

India’s Recent Foreign Direct Investment:
An Assessment

K.S. Chalapati Rao
Biswajit Dhar

Publisher: Institute for Studies in Industrial Development


Paperback: Pages: xii+146


2018 Edition


ISBN: 978-81-938075-0-7 (Paperback)


ISBN: 978-81-938075-1-4 (e-Book)



Book Reviews


Download the eBook || Press Reports || Alarming Fall of India’s FDI

The Book in Brief


Over the past three decades, the Indian policy makers have been consistently emphasising the importance of attracting sizeable amounts of foreign direct investment (FDI). Governments, both at the Centre and in States, have been highlighting the rising levels of inflows and the FDI projects they have been able to attract. Given this central focus on FDI, it is reasonable to expect that the reported figures for FDI inflows would be a reliable barometer regarding the participation of foreign companies in India. However, the study India’s Recent Inward Foreign Direct Investment: An Assessment, published by the Institute for Studies in Industrial Development in July 2018, identifies many serious limitations of the data on FDI inflows.


The limitations make the data unsuitable for drawing straightforward conclusions, especially when commenting on the effectiveness of specific policies and programmes like Make in India (MII). Even the annual aggregate inflows cannot be relied upon to provide guidance regarding year-to-year changes because of omissions and commissions involving very large remittances. Nor do they truly reflect the extent of capacity creation in the economy by FDI. The distortions and limitations in official statistics show up prominently when the inflows are examined at the level of individual companies/industries.


The issues identified include (i) delayed reporting, (ii) duplicate reporting, (iii) non-reporting, (iv) incorrect entries, (v) notional inflows, (vi) inappropriate industrial classification, (vii) under representation of acquisitions, (viii) ’round-tripping’ by large global corporations and (ix) limited disclosure/analysis of the information obtained from the investees. These findings are mainly based on comparison of remittance-wise details reported in the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion’s (DIPP) SIA Newsletter with investee companies’ filings with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The study describes each of the issues using multiple examples and case studies.


FDI Policy Changes, MII and the Inflows

The study also discusses briefly the scope and implications of the changes made to the FDI policy in 2016 and analyses the reported inflows in the context of FDI policy changes and the thrust sectors of Make in India, with emphasis on the manufacturing sector. The reported total FDI inflows during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 were $45.1 billion, $55.6 billion and $60.1 billion respectively. The corresponding equity inflows were $31.9 billion, $41.1 billion and $44.7 billion. Earlier, equity inflows came off the 2011-12 peak of $35.9 billion and fell to $22.9 billion in 2012-13. The inflows recovered partially to $25.3 billion in 2013-14. Thus, from a bare reading of the data, the recent experience appears to be a continuation of the recovery that started in 2013-14. The major changes in FDI policy effected at the two points, namely November 2015 and June 2016, might not have led to immediate strong response from foreign investors in the corresponding financial years. In fact, there was a steep fall in the early months of 2016.


At the broader level, the activities in respect of which FDI policy was relaxed accounted for 18.6 per cent of the total inflows during October 2014 to March 2017. The corresponding share for the years 2012 and 2013 was slightly higher at 20.8 per cent. Further, a regrouping of the inflows according to the 25 MII thrust sectors suggests that the MII sectors did not gain relatively in the post-MII period compared to two-year period 2012 and 2013. The figures suggest a slight decline in their share in the total inflows. Further, whichever way one looks at it, the share of manufacturing sector fell substantially. The sector’s share remained low and that too was concentrated heavily in automotive and allied industries, which in any case have been among the top recipients for many years.


Equally importantly, the contribution of newly incorporated companies is not significant in terms of their share in total inflows into companies which received at least $5 million. The number of new companies is also not large enough to indicate a strong and unambiguous response from the foreign investors. The few that were incorporated since October 2014 would have most likely come into being even if the MII did not happen. Most of the investments thus appear to be follow-up of the earlier envisaged investments.?? Further, there was also no drastic changes in the relative shares of different types of foreign investors in the new period.


However, in view of the various shortcomings and characteristics of the inflows, this traditional way of looking at the inflows does not tell the full story.


Glimpses of the Problems


Delayed and duplicate reporting are long-standing problems. The study identifies a number of such cases including those involving prominent companies and large amounts. The delays, however, cannot be entirely attributed to the investee companies as there were instances of considerable delays between reporting to the RBI/AD banks by the companies and taking them on record by the authorities. As a result, there remains significant backlog and remittances of one year are credited to later years, sometime after many years. An indication of the severity of the problem can be gauged by the fact that during 2016-17, when inflows were reported to have reached the record level, in case of large remittances each of at least $50 million, shares issued during the year accounted for only about half of the year’s total. The remaining half suffered from one issue or another. An implication of this state of affairs is that substantial amounts of inflows might have been received but are not reflected in the reported data.


The reported inflows can also be notional without any actual remittance of funds from abroad. These are generally associated with corporate restructuring. Such remittances turned out to be a major distorting factor in understanding sector-wise inflows. Notional inflows accounted for about 12 per cent of the large remittances during 2016-17. On their part, duplicate entries accounted for another 10 per cent. Two major instances of incorrect entries, namely $2,252.38 million and $2,836.43 million accounted for as much as 5.6 per cent 13 per cent of the equity inflows during 2015-16 and 2012-13 respectively.


Distortions Get Amplified at the Sectoral Level

Official data suggest that the inflows climbed to a higher peak during 2016-17. They also suggest that the share of manufacturing sector increased substantially during the year. However, in case of the electrical equipment industry, reportedly the top gainer in the manufacturing sector, nearly $1 billion could be traced to power generation instead of manufacture of electrical equipment. The corresponding amounts were actually remitted long back. Notional inflows and indirect acquisitions also played a significant role. As a result, out of the total $2,319 million inflows identified in the study, only about $385 million could actually have contributed to new capacity creation or rehabilitation of troubled companies belonging to the electrical equipment industry.


Due to large notional inflows and funds utilised in buying out shares from public shareholders, the corresponding amount in the case of cement industry was just $40 million out of the total $2,130 million of the reported inflows. One duplicate entry accounted for almost half of the inflows into the metallurgical industries during 2016-17! Notional inflows and duplicate entries accounted for bulk of the FDI into chemicals and chemical products. Together with the observed predominance of trading in the inflows into medical and surgical appliances, these observations raise serious doubts about the recovery of manufacturing sector in 2016-17. In case of the food processing industry, the study not only identifies considerable ambiguity but it also raises questions about the contribution that the reported FDI can make to the betterment of Indian farmers and the agricultural sector.


Capital Repatriations/Disinvestments

It is not the distortions alone which the Indian policymakers should be concerned about as the annual inflows are simultaneously being balanced to a significant extent by repatriations and disinvestments. The study finds that, on an average, as much as 34.8 per cent of the equity inflows went towards balancing the repatriations/disinvestments by the earlier investors during the past four years. This ratio increased fast as during 2010-11 to 2013-14 it was 29.4 per cent whereas it was only 4.5 per cent during 2006-07 to 2009-10.



While the increase in equity inflows during 2016-17 was $3,589 million, the increase on account of acquisition of existing shares was as much as $3,228 million. The increase in inflows through the approval route ($2,326 million) almost matched the fall of $2,077 million in inflows through the automatic route. Thus, acquisitions sustained the reported rise in inflows during 2016-17. Further, acquisitions happen in multiple forms, but the data are unable to capture this phenomenon fully. When the funds are deployed in downstream investments to take-over existing facilities or are invested in new companies which were incorporated for taking over existing facilities, the official data show them as cases of non-acquisition. While focusing on the quantum of inflows, this important dimension should not have been lost sight of.


‘Round-tripping’ by Global Companies


Indian subsidiaries of foreign companies pay considerable amounts to their parent companies and other foreign affiliates in multiple forms, royalty payments being a favoured route. Questions were raised in the past about the desirability of subsidiaries of foreign companies making such payments. One can also question the necessity for such transactions and pricing of payments on other accounts, especially services. The official records cannot discount such outflows when reporting the inflows. In some cases such payments far outweigh the reported inflows.?? There is no way of discounting such avoidable payments when aggregating the inflows.


India Need to do a lot of Homework


FDI inflows are seen as a bellwether of the economy. ??In this context, the Indian policy makers, analysts and academic researchers not getting the right type of inputs can lead to serious misjudgements. It may also be mentioned that major revisions were made to the reported inflows for the year 2017-18 by the RBI as a result of which total equity inflows for the year fell by 5.5 per cent over the previous year in sharp contrast to an increase of 3.2 per cent reported initially. FDI is not an unmixed blessing as it can impact an economy both positively and negatively in the long run. In this context too, the inadequate attention paid to the reporting of FDI and to analysis of inflows and operations of FDI companies is a matter of serious concern.


The Discussion Paper on ‘Industrial Policy 2017’ circulated by the DIPP last year indeed expressed dissatisfaction about FDI not delivering the expected benefits and underlined the need to review India’s FDI policy. Interestingly, it also refers to the volume-centric approach of India towards FDI. This was probably inevitable as over the years FDI is increasingly being sought to alleviate the current account deficit, and correspondingly its role as the provider of development finance and technology has diminished. Thus conceived, not all the FDI would be associated with technology infusion, let alone infusion of advanced technology.


Keeping in view the concerns expressed by the Discussion Paper, the cold-shouldering of the recommendations of the advice given by the Expert Group headed by Dr. V. Krishnamurthy by the previous government, the less than adequate replies provided to questions in the Parliament, the global emphasis on generating useful operational data on foreign affiliates, the study underlines the need to put together lot more relevant data on FDI and the associated transactions.


Along with a review of the FDI policy, which was proposed by the official Discussion Paper, the reporting mechanism also should, therefore, be reviewed to make the data on inflows facilitate drawing of meaningful inferences and to provide guidance to policymakers and other national and international analysts. The RBI should regenerate the inflows/outflows data with enhanced information content, at least for the past five years. Further reporting of inflows could follow in that pattern. RBI, MCA, CSO, DIPP and DGCI&S should work in a coordinated manner to provide useful information on the operations of both foreign and domestic companies. Close association of scholars located in institutions and universities can enhance both the quantum and quality of analysis.