Portrayal of Women in Advertising: Baseline Survey in South Asia
Portrayal of Women: An Empirical Study of Advertising Content - Issues and Concerns for Policy Intervention
The issue of stereotyping and inappropriately portraying woman has been discussed and debated for long. The crass-commercialization of mass media content encompassing news, entertainment and promotional media have contributed largely to this phenomenon. Available research in this area suggests that exposure to gender role stereotypes in advertising often infl uences genderstereotyped attitudes. The exponential growth of media in the last two decades or so, especially the growing footfall on the digital media space, has made the issue more complex not only from societal but also legal and ethical perspectives. Some scholars feel that western advertising agencies and multinational corporations that entered India in the post-liberalization period in search of expanding their markets have infl uenced Indian advertising largely. As one of the signifi cant tools that refl ects socio-cultural values, advertising represents these trends as well.
The research programme was sponsored by the ICSSR in March 2018. The project is for duration of 18 months and work was initiated in the month of May 2018. The study is undertaken by Prof. Jaishri Jethwaney as Programme Director and Prof. Seema Goyal as Co-director.
Urbanisation and Human Capital Development in Assam
As countries and regions develop, cities account for an ever-increasing share of national income. With around 30 per cent urban population, Indian cities contribute around 63 per cent of country’s GDP and a higher tax revenue generation. The pace of economic growth is usually associated with urbanisation particularly as it leads to structural transformation, besides creating agglomeration and scale economies; it also generates knowledge, skillsets and specialisation that immensely augment the productivity of urban workforce.
The need for improvement in human capital endowment in the state policy that emphasis on skill formation and vocational training has assumed significance due to two reasons: One, industries and services that have emerged as important sources of economic growth in recent years are skill-intensive and the Indian labour force is not adequately equipped with the skillset required by them. The second is the changing demographic profi le of Indian population and the concept of ‘demographic dividend’.
The importance of human capital and particularly ‘specifi c human capital’ that is usually generated through vocational education and training is a driving force of economic growth and social development. Thus, one of the emerging issues is to minimise the gap between skills supplied by the vocational training institutions and the skills demanded in the market. The new perspectives on urban centres would be a strong knowledge economy integrated with physical infrastructure that connects people, resources/goods, ideas/knowledge and skill.
The main objectives of the research project are to: a) Bring out the spatial and size-wise distribution of urban centres in Assam; b) Map the growth pattern of the urban centres by size-class categories; and c) Bring out the relative levels of human capital development by districts and link levels of human capital with levels of urbanization.
The programme is sponsored by the ICSSR and Prof H. Ramachandran is the Programme Director and Dr. Poonam Sharma, Associate Professor, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, University of Delhi is the Co-Director.
Industrial, Trade and Investment Policies: Pathways to India's Industrialisation
One of the major drawbacks of high growth trajectory that Indian economy experienced in the past decades is the pre-mature services take-off together with low and stagnant share of manufacturing in GDP. Nearly three decades of liberalised regime has unleashed market forces as the guiding principle of organising economy and society. The underlying assumption was that deregulating industry, decontrolling capital flows and de-reserving erstwhile protected segments and liberalising imports and exports would provide enough stimulation to both domestic and foreign capital. This by itself was expected to reverse the trend of dwindling manufacturing growth; however, the reality was not as expected.
In this backdrop, India’s strategies to achieve high growth in manufacturing should address the following questions: (a) how to increase India’s share in world manufacturing given the fact of slow global growth; (b) how to expand domestic demand; (c) how to mobilise internal and external sources of finance and investment to build capacities physical as well as human; and (d) what could be the role of various categories of firms – by ownership and scale of operation.
The proposed research programme has the objectives of: (i) identifying continuities and departures in production pattern, investment trends, degree of engagement through trade and technology assimilation, and status of infrastructure; (ii) comprehending an industrialisation strategy given the constraints and emerging opportunities. In this programme, it is proposed to undertake in-depth studies in five key areas of manufacturing:
- structure and growth performance,
- trade, technology and FDI,
- industrial investment and finance,
- regional dimension: agglomerations, SEZ and state level policies, and
- participation of India in global production network.
In the area of structure and growth performance, there will be a few studies analysing the structure and growth dynamics of Indian manufacturing sector; large Indian corporate sector and market competition; and the impact of new technologies (AI, robotics, big data, etc.) on Indian manufacturing sector. The trade, technology and FDI component of the programme will analyse the impact of trade liberalisation on manufacturing sector growth and productivity; and the nature and impact of liberalisation under Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). This component will also look into the issues of technology associated with FDI such as impact of technology collaborations on absorption of technology and impact of outward FDI on innovation capability. The section on industrial investment and finance will examine the impact of financial liberalisation on industrial development in India. It will also look into the relevance of Term Lending Institutions like the Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) for industrial development in the liberalised regime in India. In the area of regional dimension: agglomerations, SEZ and state level policies, a few studies will look into the relationship of survival of firms and employment to the characteristics of regions and pattern of distribution of SEZs across states. This component will also review the response of private sector players to SEZs. The section on India’s participation in global production networks will examine the nature and extent of participation of India in global production network; their share in the global value added; and the distribution of domestic and foreign components in value added share. It will also identify the industries in India, which are more globally integrated and examine how such integration affects the productivity and employment in these sectors. The following research papers have been planned under these sub-themes:
- Economic Reforms and Market Competition in India: An Assessment
- Approach to Prepare India for Industry 4.0
- Liberalisation, Structural Change and Productivity Growth in Indian Organised Manufacturing Sector
- Status of Indian Large Private Corporate Sector and the Challenge of meeting India’s Industrialisation Goals
- Import Intensity of India’s Manufactured Exports: An Industry Level Analysis
- The Changing Sophistication Level of India’s Exports
- Sectoral Productivity and Trade Performance
- Tariff Liberalisation under India’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs): Nature and Impact on the Manufacturing Sector
- Outward FDI by Indian Manufacturing Firms: Strategies, Motivations and Impacts
- Technology Transfer through FDI in India: Mode, Extent and Prospects
- Foreign Direct Investment and Innovation Activities in India’s High-Tech Manufacturing Industries
- Entry and Expansion of Realistic FDI into India’s Manufacturing Sector during the Past Decade: Implications for India’s Future Industrialisation
- Financial Liberalisation and Industrial Finance
- Political Economy of Financialisation in India: Special Focus on Corporate Sector
- Review of Industrial and Development Corridors in India
- Special Economic Zones: Location and Utilization
- Regional Dimensions of the Manufacturing Sector in India
- Structural Asymmetry in Global Production Networks: An Empirical Exploration
- Integration of Indian Handicrafts into Global Value Chain of Home Decor Industry: Prospects and Challenges
The two-year programme is sponsored by ICSSR and it is undertaken by a team of Institute’s faculty with Prof. M.R. Murthy as the Programme Director and Prof. T.P. Bhat as Co-Director.
Journey of Public Sector in India towards Socio-Economic Development of India
However, a question arises whether the existing relationship between the government and PSUs is conducive for the enterprises to play their assigned role. For instance, has listing really helped inculcate market discipline or the listed PSUs are hemmed between the market and the policymakers? What explains their lacklustre record at technology development? In this regard, while learning from the experiences of China and other emerging economies, India, given her own political system, would have to devise own ways. A project proposal was submitted to Standing Conference on Public Enterprises (SCOPE), New Delhi for financial support.
Changing Business Group Strategies in India: An Inquiry from the Lens of Mergers and Acquisitions in India
In a developing country context, the multiple number of M&As undertaken by big business groups have both positive and negative implications. While ???bigness??? is considered to be crucial from the point of creating globally competitive firms and deriving economies of scale, major concerns arise due to the likelihood of creating monopolistic elements in the market along with the evils associated with the concentration of economic power in the economy. M&As is one of the relatively unregulated routes of business restructuring at the group level. More specifically, the study addresses the following: the significance of big business groups in the Indian corporate sector in terms of various indicators; extent, nature and structure of M&As undertaken by top business groups; product market competition through business group M&As; and concentration of economic power through business group consolidation. A case study of a consolidation intensive business group will enrich the macro-level findings. The study will attempt to evaluate and will help understand the contribution of new policy regime adopted in India. The study is sponsored by the ICSSR and Dr. Beena Saraswathy is the Project Director.
Global Value Chain Engagement and Industrial Restructuring: A Study of the Indian Electronics Industry
The differential involvement of foreign-affiliated firms and domestically-owned firms in value chains, their equity and non-equity forms of value chain engagement, their contributions to and impact on production restructuring, trade balances and technological capabilities, etc. need to be examined at the firm-level, through an analysis of related party transactions and inter-firm transactions of both foreign-invested and domestically-owned enterprises. Thus the objective of the study is to examine and assess value chain participation of domestically-owned and foreign-owned firms using firm-level sources of primary and secondary data. In contrast to existing approaches based on analysis of trade in value added (TiVA) or intra-industry trade (IIT) with their weaknesses, this study proposes a new framework that combines macro policy aspects of trade and investment liberalisation with firm-level business strategies for achieving competitiveness, to unravel the dynamics of GVC engagement by domestic firms. The research project is sponsored by the ICSSR and is being carried by Dr. Smitha Francis, Consultant, ISID, jointly with Prof. Murali Kallummal, Centre for WTO Studies, New Delhi.
Understanding FDI-Linked Trade through Related Party Transactions: A Study of Manufacturing Foreign Subsidiaries in India
The preferred tendency towards intra-firm trade by MNC-associated firms has been typically linked to transfer pricing practices by a host of studies globally and many recent studies find evidence of profit shifting through the manipulation of transfer prices by these firms. The susceptibility of these transactions to mispricing practices is undoubtedly high, especially in the case of developing countries. Given the complexities involved in identification, analysis and comparisons of related party foreign transactions owing largely to the data shortcomings especially for the vast number of unlisted foreign affiliated firms, the issue remains largely unexplored in the Indian context. No direct estimates of degree or pattern of intra-firm trade in foreign exchange transactions (covering various transaction heads) of foreign affiliates operating in India are available for the post-reform period.
The study is seeking to address this data gap and aims to analyse the extent of intra-firm transactions in foreign exchange transactions of foreign affiliates operating in the manufacturing sector of India, as far as traceable. Apart from the trade-related transfers, a closer examination of financial, technology and service payments related transfers will be undertaken, given the high potential of mispricing in transactions involving absolute intangible asset transfers and the special challenges faced by revenue authorities in auditing them globally.
The study shall cover about 500 listed and unlisted foreign manufacturing affiliates and will focus on two recent years, namely 2014???15 and 2015???16. The information on intra-firm foreign transactions for firms shall be obtained from the related party transaction disclosures in their financial statements, which is mandatory for all material transactions under the Indian Accounting Standard 18 for accounting periods ending on or after 01.04.2004. The data on the annual financial statements of firms will be procured from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) website and from the Prowess Database of CMIE. The related party ???foreign??? transactions of the foreign affiliated firms are being identified individually for different earnings and expenses heads. Also, a review of various tax disputes around transfer pricing of different foreign transactions of the selected firms will be done by inspecting the extracts of legal cases from a few legal websites to understand the issue from a contemporary legal perspective. The project is of 24 months duration commenced in May 2017 and will be completed by April, 2019. The study is sponsored by ICSSR and Dr. Swati Verma is the Project Co-ordinator.
Constructing an Urban India
It is further argued that tertiary sector-led urban growth as experienced in India is not as unsustainable as a segment of research literature makes it out to be, despite increasing regional and interpersonal income disparities, since accelerated reduction of poverty is positively related to level of urbanisation and without much cost to the public exchequer. Recent decades have recorded increased absorption of labour force released from rural economy in the urban informal sector in the developing world including India where the informal sector accounts for over 90 per cent of employment. This has been viewed as a solution to the growing problem of unemployment.
Given the above argument, finding land for urban growth is important. At present, less than around 3 per cent of the country???s land is under urban use. It is possible to locate suitable land for urban-industrial development without hurting agriculture. The role of the government is to facilitate such land use change through land policies. The study is being undertaken by Prof. H. Ramachandran under the ICSSR National Fellowship Programme.
Understanding India's Industrial Development Puzzle through the Interactions between Industrial Policy and Trade Policy: A case study of the electronics industry
Against the backdrop of the discourse on the causes of India’s manufacturing sector growth decline and revival strategies, this study examines the interplay between trade and investment liberalisation and domestic manufacturing sector growth dynamics by focussing on the electronics industry, with a view to drawing implications for industrial policy. There are several parallel processes of trade and investment liberalisation that have had an impact on the Indian electronics industry. Apart from unilateral trade and investment liberalisation, a second channel of liberalisation was under the Information Technology Agreement (ITA-1) signed in 1996, which is a plurilateral agreement of the WTO designed to achieve lowering/elimination of all entry barriers on trade in information technology products. Thirdly, the WTO-plus trade and investment liberalisation carried out by India under its comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with East and Southeast economies such as Singapore, ASEAN, Japan, South Korea and Malaysia has also significantly changed the competitive scenario facing Indian producers in the electronics industry. Through an analysis of the pattern of trade and FDI flows in the electronics industry, the study seeks to unravel the implications of trade and investment liberalisation for the domestic electronics industry’s development trajectory and what this means for industrial policy formulation. The study is being undertaken by Dr Smitha Francis.
Foreign Acquisitions and FDI Inflows into India's Drugs and Pharmaceutical Sector
Pharmaceutical industry in India has been nurtured over a period and it has acquired global recognition as a significant producer of generic drugs. Over the years many Indian companies emerged to reach the top rung of the industry in India displacing some long established foreign manufacturers. Following the liberalisation of FDI policy and change in the Patent Act, however, the situation started changing gradually as major Indian manufacturers are getting acquired by foreign companies thus raising concerns regarding accessibility, availability and affordability of medicines, exports, R&D for diseases in the country’s profile, etc. Concomitantly, other aspects of healthcare like medical equipment, diagnostics, hospitals, etc. too, came under focus. From the point of FDI inflows into India, the pharmaceutical sector emerged as the topmost recipient of FDI among the manufacturing industries. Thus, the developments in sector turned out to be important both from FDI inflows and public health points of view. In this context, the study would focus on the quantum of FDI inflows, nature of foreign investors, the mode of entry and operational aspects of FDI companies in the sector.
An Analysis of India's Merchandise Export Performance during 1999-2013: Existing Competencies and Emerging Policy Challenges
The Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India sanctioned a short term study of Macro Analysis for Working out Elasticity of Demand for Top 10 Commodities of India’s Exports. The objective of the study is to work out elasticity of demand for top ten commodities of exports using dataset for the years 1999-00 to 2008-09 and more recent years of 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 to identify factors typically relevant in the context of exports and build simulations and draw policy implications for export promotion. A draft report was submitted to the Department in October 2013. The Ministry requested to take the Institute to do a sectoral level disaggregated analysis to enhance the relevance of the study and a new proposal was submitted to the Dept. The study examines India’s existing export competencies and weaknesses through an analysis of India’s export dynamics in its major export sectors in order to identify the emerging policy challenges. The study will analyse India’s merchandise export performance at the global level for the last 15 years covering 1999-2013 with a view to suggesting sector-specific export promotion policies. The study is undertaken by Dr Smitha Francis. It is expected to be completed by November-December 2014.
Participation of Indian Firms in Global Production Network: Nature and Implications
Linkage between Growth and Manufacturing Sector as Reflected by ASI and Growth in Exports
India: Trade in Health Services
The paper brings out the various dimensions of India???s trade in the healthcare sector with specific reference to its growth, advantages and disadvantages. The findings indicate that India has a distinct advantage in health tourism (mode 2) and movements of health personnel (mode 4) including physicians, nurses, paramedics, midwives, technicians, and health management personnel. In cross-border delivery (mode 1) which includes shipment of laboratory samples, diagnosis and clinical consultations via e-health services, India has made some progress but is yet to establish its supremacy. In mode 3 the commercial presence of foreign establishments in India is in the initial stages. The flow of foreign investment is slow and halting in spite of high degree of healthcare trade liberalization.
The growing trade in health sector could generate large number of jobs for the skilled and semi-skilled health personnel, besides foreign exchange earnings for the country. There are barriers to healthcare trade, particularly in health tourism and migration of physicians and nurses in many trading partner countries. India is able to cope-up with these obstacles to a considerable extent. The need of the hour is for the government to support the programme. Better institutional support is also required. The government has taken some measures, but they are inadequate. The healthcare trade could also be promoted through regional and sub-regional agreements. Currently, speciality health services are attracting large number of foreign patients to India for treatment. The study is being undertaken by Dr T.P. Bhat.
Pharmaceutical Sector: Investment and Innovation
The study describes the patterns of changes observed in the form of four distinct innovation regimes in order to bring out how the consequences of these regimes have been very different for the development of capabilities for making innovation happen. A detailed assessment of the current innovation regime (2002???2013) is available. The aim was to highlight the achievements and limitations of the current innovation regime with a view to pinpoint the main challenges facing the country in the sphere of industrial policy in respect of fulfilling the goals of industrial upgrading and public health. Also, a preliminary assessment of the emerging barriers to responsible innovation was completed.
During the year 2013???14, some preliminary assessments have been made on: the kind of strategies to be devised for meeting the challenges of access to quality drugs relevant to the burden of diseases and of building a responsive ecosystem, given the dynamic situation in global and national markets both with respect to supply and demand; tracking the emerging impact of acquisitions, takeovers, divestitures and mergers on the industrial performance; impact of strategic alliances, collaborations and PPPs and harmonization of regulation and procurement and other related changes on the upgrading of capabilities for innovation in the pharmaceutical industry; and, the changes in FDI policy to find out what has been the impact on the progress in respect of learning and innovation making in pharmaceuticals for the foreign and domestic firms operating from India to cater to both domestic as well as foreign markets.
Further work is in progress on the tracking of the evolving impacts of the changes in policies and programmes on: i) Pharmaceutical production and market structure, (ii) Private and Public investment in Pharmaceutical Sector, (iii) Medicine Pricing; iv) Compulsory Licensing; v) Bulk drug R&D in public and private sectors, (vi) Status of R&D and Innovation making in TB, Diabetes and Cancer, (vii) Status of patenting on processes, products, formulation and drug delivery systems, (viii) Collaborations, linkages and institution building for innovation making???Response of Indian industry and Research Institutions, ix) Evaluation of impact of India???s WHO Collaborative R&D Centres Programme, and, (x) WHO Global Strategy and Plan of Action for Public Health, Intellectual Property and Innovation. The study is jointly undertaken by Prof. Dinesh Abrol, Ms Nidhi Singh and Ms Bilqeesa Bhat.